JavaScript toString() Method Usage with Examples

Written by - Olorunfemi Akinlua
Reviewed by - Deepak Prasad

In this tutorial we will cover javaScript toString() method in detail, exploring its applications across different data types, customizations for unique objects, handling special cases like null and undefined, and comparing it with JSON.stringify(), all accompanied by practical tips and examples.


Overview of JavaScript's toString() Method

The toString() method in JavaScript is like a translator. Imagine you have different types of data in JavaScript, like numbers, words, or complex items like arrays. The toString() method acts like a translator, converting these data types into strings. Strings are simply text, which is a format that's easy to read and work with in coding. Think of toString() as a way to standardize different types of data into a uniform text format.


Syntax and Basic Use

General Syntax Explained

The syntax for using toString() is straightforward. Here's the basic structure:


In this syntax, value is the data you want to convert to a string. The .toString() part does the conversion.


Examples of Basic Applications

Let's look at some examples to understand how toString() works:

Converting a Number to a String

Suppose you have the number 123 and want to convert it to a string. Here's how you'd do it:

let number = 123;
let stringNumber = number.toString();
console.log(stringNumber); // Output: "123"

Converting an Array to a String

If you have an array of numbers like [1, 2, 3] and you want to convert it to a single string, you can use toString() like this:

let array = [1, 2, 3];
let stringArray = array.toString();
console.log(stringArray); // Output: "1,2,3"


Data Type Applications

Number Conversions

In JavaScript, when you work with numbers and need them in a text format, toString() comes to the rescue. It's like changing the form of the number without altering its essence. Here's how you do it:

let myNumber = 10;
let textVersion = myNumber.toString();
console.log(textVersion); // Outputs: "10"

In this example, the number 10 is converted into the string "10". This conversion is handy when you need to display numbers on a web page or combine them with other text.


Strings and toString()

You might wonder why you'd need toString() for strings, as they are already text. Well, it's more about consistency and error prevention. Using toString() on a string doesn't change it but ensures that the value is definitely a string. Here's an example:

let myString = "Hello, World!";
let confirmedString = myString.toString();
console.log(confirmedString); // Outputs: "Hello, World!"

This process guarantees that myString is in text format, which can prevent unexpected errors in more complex code.


Boolean Values

Booleans represent true or false values. Converting them to strings can be useful for displaying purposes or when you need to send data in a text format. Here's how you can use toString() with booleans:

let myBoolean = true;
let stringBoolean = myBoolean.toString();
console.log(stringBoolean); // Outputs: "true"

In this case, the boolean true is converted to the string "true".


BigInts and Symbols

BigInts are used for very large numbers, and Symbols are unique identifiers. Both can be converted to strings using toString(). This conversion is especially useful for BigInts when you need to display or log them:

let myBigInt = BigInt(123456789012345678901234567890);
let stringBigInt = myBigInt.toString();
console.log(stringBigInt); // Outputs: "123456789012345678901234567890"

let mySymbol = Symbol("uniqueIdentifier");
let stringSymbol = mySymbol.toString();
console.log(stringSymbol); // Outputs: "Symbol(uniqueIdentifier)"

Using toString() on BigInts and Symbols helps in representing them as readable text, which is useful for debugging or displaying these types of values.


Customizing the Method

Overriding in Custom Objects

In JavaScript, you're not just limited to the default behavior of toString(). You can customize how it works for your own objects. This is like giving a personal touch to how your objects talk about themselves. When you create a custom object, you can define your own toString() method for it. Here's a simple example:

class Car {
  constructor(brand, model) {
    this.brand = brand;
    this.model = model;

  toString() {
    return `Car: ${this.brand} ${this.model}`;

let myCar = new Car("Toyota", "Corolla");
console.log(myCar.toString()); // Outputs: "Car: Toyota Corolla"

In this code, we create a Car class with a custom toString() method. When called, it returns a string describing the car's brand and model.


Real-World Custom Implementations

Customizing the toString() method can be incredibly useful in real-world applications. For instance, if you're working with a complex object like a user profile, you might want to quickly generate a summary of a user's information. By customizing toString(), you can format this summary exactly how you want:

class UserProfile {
  constructor(name, age, occupation) { = name;
    this.age = age;
    this.occupation = occupation;

  toString() {
    return `${}, Age: ${this.age}, Occupation: ${this.occupation}`;

let user = new UserProfile("Jane Doe", 30, "Engineer");
console.log(user.toString()); // Outputs: "Jane Doe, Age: 30, Occupation: Engineer"

This customized toString() method provides a concise, readable summary of a user's profile.


Understanding Role of Radix Parameter

The toString() method can also take a parameter, called the radix. This is mostly used with numbers. The radix parameter specifies the base of the numeral system to be used for converting numbers to strings. The most common bases are 10 (decimal), 2 (binary), 8 (octal), and 16 (hexadecimal). Here's an example:

let myNumber = 15;

// Decimal
console.log(myNumber.toString(10)); // Outputs: "15"

// Binary
console.log(myNumber.toString(2)); // Outputs: "1111"

// Octal
console.log(myNumber.toString(8)); // Outputs: "17"

// Hexadecimal
console.log(myNumber.toString(16)); // Outputs: "f"

In each case, the number 15 is represented in a different numeral system based on the radix parameter.

The choice of the radix parameter can significantly change the output of toString(). It allows you to represent the same numeric value in various formats, which can be useful in different programming contexts, like data encoding, working with binary data, or debugging. It's important to choose the right radix for your specific need to ensure that the data is represented accurately and meaningfully.


Advanced Insights

Dealing with null and undefined

In JavaScript, null and undefined are special values that represent 'nothing' or 'no value'. However, using toString() on these values can be tricky. If you try to use toString() directly on them, it will cause an error because they're not objects and don't have methods. Here's how you can handle this:

let myValue = null;
let stringValue;

if (myValue != null) {
  stringValue = myValue.toString();
} else {
  stringValue = String(myValue);

console.log(stringValue); // Outputs: "null"

This code checks if myValue is not null or undefined before using toString(). If it is null or undefined, it uses the String() function instead, which can handle these special values without errors.


Comparing with JSON.stringify()

While toString() converts values to strings, JSON.stringify() serves a similar but broader purpose. It converts JavaScript objects into JSON strings. This method is particularly useful for complex objects. Unlike toString(), JSON.stringify() can handle null values and provides a more comprehensive, standard way of converting objects, arrays, and other data types into a readable string format. Here's an example:

let myObject = {
  name: "Alice",
  age: 25,
  hobbies: ["reading", "gaming"]

console.log(myObject.toString()); // Might output: "[object Object]"
console.log(JSON.stringify(myObject)); // Outputs: '{"name":"Alice","age":25,"hobbies":["reading","gaming"]}'

JSON.stringify() gives a complete, readable representation of the entire object, including all its properties and values.


Frequently Asked Questions on JavaScript toString() Method

What exactly does toString() do in JavaScript?

The toString() method in JavaScript converts a value into a string format. It's used to transform different data types like numbers, arrays, or objects into a readable text form. For example, if you have a number 123 and use 123.toString(), it becomes "123" in string format.

Can I use toString() on arrays? What will be the output?

Yes, you can use toString() on arrays. It converts the array elements into a single string, separating the elements with commas. For instance, if your array is [1, 2, 3], using toString() on it would yield the string "1,2,3".

How is toString() different from JSON.stringify()?

toString() is a method for converting individual values to strings, while JSON.stringify() converts entire objects (including arrays) into JSON formatted strings. For complex objects, JSON.stringify() provides a detailed, readable representation, including all properties and values, which is not the case with toString().

What happens if I use toString() on null or undefined values?

Using toString() directly on null or undefined will result in an error, as these values don't have properties or methods. To convert null or undefined to a string, you can use the String() function, which handles these cases without throwing an error.

Is it possible to customize the toString() method for my objects?

Yes, you can customize toString() for your own objects. This involves defining your own toString() method within your object or class. This custom method can then return a string formatted according to your needs.

Can using toString() affect the performance of my JavaScript application?

toString() is generally efficient for converting simple data types to strings. However, for complex objects or large-scale operations, the method you choose (toString() or JSON.stringify()) can impact performance. toString() is faster for simple conversions, while JSON.stringify() can be slower but more comprehensive for complex objects.

Is the toString() method available for all data types in JavaScript?

Almost all data types in JavaScript have a toString() method, including numbers, strings, arrays, and most objects. However, null and undefined are exceptions, as they don't have this method. Primitive values like booleans and symbols also have their own toString() methods.

What does the radix parameter in toString() do?

The radix parameter in toString() is used mainly with numbers to specify the base of the numeral system for the conversion. For example, using num.toString(2) converts a number to its binary representation, while num.toString(16) converts it to hexadecimal.

Can toString() handle complex nested objects?

toString() is not the best choice for complex nested objects, as it doesn't provide a detailed, structured representation of such objects. In these cases, JSON.stringify() is more suitable as it can accurately represent the entire structure and content of complex nested objects.

Are there any special cases where toString() should be avoided?

Besides avoiding toString() with null and undefined, it's also less ideal for objects where a detailed representation is needed. In cases where you need a comprehensive view of an object's properties, JSON.stringify() is the better option. Additionally, custom objects with a specific format requirement might need a customized toString() method for accurate representation.


Conclusion and Best Practices

The toString() method in JavaScript is a versatile and essential tool for converting various data types into strings. Its primary use is to enable easy reading and processing of data in string format. The method works with numbers, arrays, booleans, BigInts, symbols, and objects. It's crucial to remember that null and undefined cannot be directly converted using toString(). Customizing toString() for specific objects can provide more meaningful string representations, especially in complex objects. When dealing with comprehensive data representations, JSON.stringify() offers a more detailed alternative, particularly for nested objects.

For more detailed information and official documentation on the toString() method and related JavaScript functionalities, you can visit the following links:


Olorunfemi Akinlua

He is boasting over five years of experience in JavaScript, specializing in technical content writing and UX design. With a keen focus on programming languages, he crafts compelling content and designs user-friendly interfaces to enhance digital experiences across various domains. You can connect with him on LinkedIn.

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