Java Arguments vs Parameters: A No-Nonsense Tutorial

Written By - Bashir Alam

Welcome to this comprehensive tutorial where we unravel the mystery behind the "difference between argument and parameter in Java". If you've ever found yourself tangled in confusion while coding in Java, wondering about what sets an argument apart from a parameter or vice versa, you've landed at the right place. In the programming realm, terms like "Java arguments vs parameters" often float around, creating a whirlpool of questions in the minds of budding developers and sometimes even the experienced ones.

In this tutorial, we aim to clarify these concepts, making them as simple and digestible as possible. We’ll begin by diving into basic definitions, ensuring that we lay a solid foundation. Following that, we’ll explore the intricate details of parameters and arguments, illustrating their functionalities and utilization in Java methods.

To make the difference crystal clear, we’ll walk you through a variety of examples and scenarios, showcasing how parameters and arguments operate and interact in real-world code. Furthermore, expect to uncover advanced concepts, best practices, and common misconceptions related to parameters and arguments in Java.

By the end of this guide, the terms "parameter" and "argument" will no longer be a source of confusion but rather a clarified concept that enhances your programming expertise and coding vocabulary in Java. So, buckle up as we embark on this enlightening journey through the realms of parameters and arguments in Java!


Basic Definitions and Concepts

Definition of Parameter in Java

A parameter, often referred to as a formal parameter, is a variable used in method declarations and definitions. It acts as a placeholder for the value that is to be passed to the method by a caller. A method parameter is specified within the parentheses following the method name and indicates the type and name of the value that the method will receive when it is called. This allows the method to be used with different inputs, promoting reusability and flexibility.

public class Main {
    // The method takes a parameter 'a' of type int
    public static void printSquare(int a) {
        System.out.println(a * a);

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        printSquare(5); // Calling the method with an argument

In this example, int a inside the parentheses in the method declaration public static void printSquare(int a) is a parameter. It indicates that the method printSquare will receive an integer, which it will then square and print.


Definition of Argument in Java

An argument, or actual parameter, is the actual value that is passed to a method when it is invoked. The argument is used to populate the parameters of the method, and it determines the value that the method operates on.

public class Main {
    public static void printSquare(int a) {
        System.out.println(a * a);

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // 5 is the argument passed to the printSquare method

In this example, when the method printSquare is called in the main method, the value 5 is passed as an argument. This value is then used by the printSquare method, populating the parameter a, and resulting in the square of 5 being printed.


Comparing Parameters and Arguments

There are few general differences between java arguments and parameters. Here we will highlight some of those differences and later in other sections, we will implement them through the java program and will see the difference. See the list below which shows some of the differences between java arguments and parameters.

  • The Java argument is value that is passed into a function and is used whenever a function is called. The parameter is the variable that is defined in a functional block. So, it is basically used whenever we need to pass a value to a particular functional block.
  • Arguments are used to send the values to the function whereas parameters are used to receive or hold the values of arguments.
  • During a function call, each argument is associated with a parameter and vice versa is also true.
  • Arguments are called the actual parameter whereas parameters are called formal parameters.
Java arguments vs parameters

Here is a comparison table: Java Arguments vs Parameters

Aspect Parameters Arguments
Definition Parameters are variables defined in a method signature. They act as placeholders for the values to be passed to the method. Arguments are actual values that are passed to a method during its invocation.
Usage Used in the declaration of a method to specify the expected input. Used when calling or invoking a method, passing actual values to it.
Example In public void display(int x), int x is a parameter. In display(5), 5 is an argument.
Type Specification Parameters must have a specified data type, as they are part of the method signature. Arguments don’t have specified types in the method call; they must match the parameter’s type.
Role Serve as placeholders, allowing methods to be more versatile and reusable. Determine the actual data that a method will operate on when it is executed.

Consider a simple method that adds two numbers:

public class Calculator {

    // Method Declaration with Parameters
    public static int add(int num1, int num2) { // num1 and num2 are parameters
        return num1 + num2;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Method Invocation with Arguments
        int result = add(5, 3); // 5 and 3 are arguments
        System.out.println("The sum is: " + result);

In the Declaration:

  • int num1, int num2 within the method declaration (int num1, int num2) are parameters. They act as placeholders that define the type and name of data that the method add expects.

In the Invocation:

  • In add(5, 3), 5 and 3 are arguments. They are actual values passed to populate the parameters num1 and num2 respectively, allowing the method to execute and return a value based on these actual values.


Java Arguments vs Parameters - Usage

Parameters in Method Definitions

In Java, parameters are used within method definitions to specify the kind of data the method will operate on. Parameters act as placeholders in a method signature, allowing for the method to be reused with various inputs, enhancing the modularity and flexibility of the code. This aspect forms a core part of understanding the "difference between argument and parameter in Java".

public class Greeting {
    // A method with a parameter
    public void greetUser(String userName) { // 'String userName' is a parameter
        System.out.println("Hello, " + userName + "!");

In this example, String userName is a parameter in the method definition. It shows that the greetUser method expects a String input when it is called.

Arguments in Method Calls

Arguments, in contrast to parameters, are the actual values provided to a method during its invocation. They substitute the method's parameters, thus allowing for the method’s execution with specific data. Recognizing how arguments function in method calls is fundamental in mastering the "Java arguments vs parameters" distinction.

public class GreetingTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Greeting greeting = new Greeting();
        // Calling the method with an argument
        greeting.greetUser("Alice"); // 'Alice' is an argument

In this instance, when calling greetUser("Alice"), the String "Alice" is an argument. It replaces the userName parameter in the greetUser method, facilitating the method to execute and display a personalized greeting.


Detailed examples to understand the comparison

Navigating through the "difference between argument and parameter in Java" becomes clearer with detailed examples. Below are code snippets demonstrating "Java arguments vs parameters," followed by a walkthrough of each example for deeper comprehension.

Example 1: A Simple Greeting Method

public class Greeting {
    // Defining a method with a parameter
    public void greet(String name) { // 'String name' is a parameter
        System.out.println("Hello, " + name + "!");

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Greeting greeting = new Greeting();
        // Calling the method with an argument
        greeting.greet("John"); // 'John' is an argument
  • The method greet is defined with a parameter String name, which acts as a placeholder.
  • In the main method, the greet method is called with the argument "John", which replaces the name parameter and results in the output Hello, John!.

Example 2: Calculating the Area of a Rectangle

public class Rectangle {
    // Defining a method with parameters
    public void calculateArea(int length, int breadth) { // 'int length, int breadth' are parameters
        int area = length * breadth;
        System.out.println("The area of the rectangle is: " + area);

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Rectangle rectangle = new Rectangle();
        // Calling the method with arguments
        rectangle.calculateArea(5, 10); // '5, 10' are arguments
  • The calculateArea method is defined with two parameters: int length and int breadth.
  • In the main method, calculateArea is invoked with two arguments, 5 and 10. These values are used for the parameters length and breadth, leading to the calculation and output of the rectangle's area.


Common Misconceptions and Clarifications

There are several misconceptions when it comes to understanding the "difference between argument and parameter in Java." Let’s address these points of confusion and clarify them.

Misconception 1: Parameters and Arguments are Interchangeable Terms

Clarification: While these terms are sometimes used interchangeably in casual conversation, they have distinct roles. Parameters are placeholders defined in the method signature, while arguments are actual values passed during the method invocation.

Misconception 2: Parameters Hold Actual Values

Clarification: Parameters don’t hold actual values. They are more like variables that will hold the values (arguments) passed during the method call. They specify the type and name of the data that the method can operate on.

Misconception 3: A Method Call can Exclude Arguments

Clarification: A method must always be called with arguments that match the number and types of its parameters, unless the parameters are optional or have default values. Missing or mismatched arguments will result in a compile-time error.

Misconception 4: Parameters Determine the Method's Behavior

Clarification: Parameters alone don’t determine the method’s behavior. They allow the method to operate on various data, but the actual values (arguments) passed during method invocation influence the method's execution and output.

Misconception 5: Argument Types can be Different from Parameter Types

Clarification: Argument types must match the types specified by the parameters. For instance, if a method is defined with an integer parameter, passing a string argument would lead to a compile-time error.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the main difference between an argument and a parameter in Java?

The main difference lies in their usage. Parameters are used in the declaration of a method as placeholders, defining the type of data the method expects. Arguments, on the other hand, are the actual values passed to the method during its invocation, replacing the placeholders (parameters) defined.

Can parameters have default values in Java?

Unlike some other programming languages like C++ or Python, Java doesn’t support default parameter values natively. Every argument expected by the method must be provided during the method’s invocation, or the code will result in a compile-time error.

How are arguments passed to a method in Java, by value or by reference?

Java arguments are passed by value. However, it can seem like objects are passed by reference because the value passed is actually the reference to the object, not the actual object itself. Primitives are straightforwardly passed by value.

Can a method have variable arguments in Java?

Yes, Java supports varargs (variable arguments). Varargs allow you to pass an arbitrary number of values to a method, but they must be of the same type and be the last parameter in the method's signature.

Do parameter names have to match when overriding methods in Java?

No, parameter names do not have to match when overriding methods. Only the method name, return type, and parameter types are considered when overriding a method, not the parameter names.

Can a method in Java have different parameter lists for overloading?

Yes, method overloading in Java allows defining multiple methods with the same name but with different parameter lists (different types and/or number of parameters). The compiler differentiates these methods based on their parameter lists.



Navigating through the difference between argument and parameter in Java is fundamental to honing one’s skills in Java programming. Recognizing and correctly implementing Java arguments vs parameters enhances the readability, reusability, and overall functionality of code.

Summarizing the Key Differences and Takeaways:

  • Parameters act as placeholders and are specified in the method definition, guiding what type of data the method can accept.
  • Arguments are the actual values passed to the method during its invocation, aligning with the parameters defined.
  • Clarifying these concepts is essential to avoid common misconceptions and errors, promoting effective and accurate method declaration and invocation.

Oracle’s official Java documentation offers in-depth insights and explanations that can be instrumental for mastering the use of arguments and parameters:


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