Table of Contents
In Linux, each process has more than one alternative. In operating systems such as Windows and MAC, most file downloads are done with applications with a graphical interface, while in Linux, this ratio is mostly on the terminal. In this article, we will discuss “How to download file from Linux”.
Different tools available to download file from Linux
In Linux operating systems with a graphical interface(GUI), file downloads can be made via web browsers (Firefox, Chrome, Opera, etc.). In server systems that do not have any GUI, different applications are used for this process. The most frequently used ones are the following packages;
- Wget : The non-interactive network downloader.
- Curl: curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server
- Httpie: cURL-like tool for humans
The file to be downloaded must be on a network accessible from your system. For example, if you are going to pull data from a web page on the internet, the system must be able to access the internet.
Another issue is that you must have the url information of the file to be downloaded.
Pre-requisite: Download Packages
On a Debian based system (Ubuntu, Pardus, Kali etc.), you can download the package you want with the following steps;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp$ apt install wget -y
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp$ apt install curl -y
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp$ apt install httpie -y
In Redhat based operating systems (Centos, AlmaLinux, Rocky Linux etc);
foc@fedora:/tmp$ yum install wget
foc@fedora:/tmp$ yum install curl
foc@fedora:/tmp$ yum install httpie
Method-1: Using Wget Tool
Download Single File
To download a single file with the wget package, run the following command in the terminal;
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo wget https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png --2022-07-07 20:51:35-- https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png Resolving www.golinuxcloud.com (www.golinuxcloud.com)... 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 2606:4700::6813:9b5c, ... Connecting to www.golinuxcloud.com (www.golinuxcloud.com)|188.8.131.52|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 104507 (102K) [image/png] Saving to: ‘disk-format-package-list-1.png’ disk-format-package-list-1.png 100%[======================================================================================================================>] 102.06K 544KB/s in 0.2s 2022-07-07 20:51:36 (544 KB/s) - ‘disk-format-package-list-1.png’ saved [104507/104507]
After this command, a single file is downloaded.
Download files with defined directory depth
Now you may not want to download all sub-directories from the URL. In such case you can define the depth of the directories you want to download from Linux using wget. The following command is written to download the desired directory and its subdirectories;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp/test$ wget -r --no-parent https://github.com/farukomercakmak/ansible-example
The directory and sub-files are downloaded with a directory structure as follows;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp/test$ tree github.com github.com/ ├── farukomercakmak │ └── ansible-example ├── features │ └── actions ├── fluidicon.png ├── index.html ├── manifest.json ├── mobile ├── opensearch.xml ├── robots.txt └── signup?ref_cta=Sign+up&ref_loc=header+logged+out&ref_page=%2F<user-name>%2F<repo-name>&source=header-repo 2 directories, 9 files
Download single directory (without sub-directories)
To download a directory (not subdirectories) using wget, the following command should be run;
sudo wget -r -l1 --no-parent [directory]
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp/test$ wget -r -l1 --no-parent https://github.com/farukomercakmak/ansible-example
If the --no-parent parameter is not given, it starts downloading starting from the first step of the url (For example github.com). Therefore, do not forget to give this parameter.
You may encounter problems downloading the file. This is an undesirable problem, especially with large files. In order for the download to continue from where it left off, you need to use
-c parameter along with
wget in the command you use.
To continue the package download with wget;
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ :~$ wget -c https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png
Method-2: Using Curl Tool
Download Single File
If you want to download a single file using curl, the following command should be run;
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ curl -O https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png
In the file download process using curl, the following command is written to continue the download.
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ :~$ curl -C - -O https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png
Multiple file download
File download may not always be for a single file. Examples of usage of related packages for multi-file download are given below. For multi-file download with wget, the url of the file to be downloaded must be written to a file.
You can print different url information to the file with the example below;
echo "https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/container-2-1.jpg" >> urls.txt
You can print the url information you want to download between the “” signs. The final version of the urls file should be as follows;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp# cat urls.txt https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/container-2-1.jpg https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png
There are 2 different uses in the curl package. First, to give two url information one after the other with the -O parameter;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp# curl -O https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/container-2-1.jpg -O https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 41095 100 41095 0 0 87997 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 87809 % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 102k 100 102k 0 0 325k 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 325k
In the second use, it can be downloaded by reading the url information from a file, as in the
wget package. The
xargs command is also needed for this;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp# xargs -n 1 curl -O < urls.txt % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 41095 100 41095 0 0 142k 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 142k % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 102k 100 102k 0 0 382k 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 382k
Download the file with a different name (rename)
We can use
-o followed by the output path and the file name you want to use for the file which gets downloaded. For example I will rename the image to myimage.png while downloading the same using curl:
curl https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png -o /tmp/test.png
Method-3: Using Httpie Tool
Download Single File
For single file download using
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ http --download https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png
For resume download using httpie;
ubuntu@ubuntu:/tmp# http --download https://www.golinuxcloud.com/wp-content/uploads/disk-format-package-list-1.png --output disk-format-package-list.png --continue
--continueparameter in the Httpie package, the use of
--outputis required. Otherwise, you may get the following error;;
http: error: --continue requires --output to be specified
Finally, each package has features other than the above. You can check the man pages in the terminal to find out;
Related Keywords: download file terminal, linux download file, terminal download file, download file from linux terminal, command line download file, linux download command, download file from terminal