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In this article I will share different commands which can be used to check the hard drive (disk) type in your Linux environment. I have verified these commands on RHEL/CentOS Linux so if you are using a different distribution such as Ubuntu, Debian, etc then some of the commands may now work.
Check disk type (HDD or SSD)
There are different types of disk available out of which the most used are Hard Drive (HDD) and Solid State Drive (SSD). You can use the following methods to identify your disk type whether it is HDD or SSD
Method 1: Check if the disk is rotational
You should check the value of
/sys/block/sdX/queue/rotational, where sdX is the drive name. If the value is 0, you're dealing with an SSD, and 1 means plain old HDD.
These are the available disks on my Linux server:
# lsscsi [0:0:0:0] storage HP P244br 6.30 - [0:1:0:0] disk HP LOGICAL VOLUME 6.30 /dev/sda [0:1:0:1] disk HP LOGICAL VOLUME 6.30 /dev/sdb
Now we can check the rotational value of these individual disks:
# cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational 1 # cat /sys/block/sdb/queue/rotational 1
As the value for both the disks are 1, it means my both the disks are HDD.
Method 2: Using lsblk
Here also we will use the concept of identifying the disks with rotational feature to check the disk type. Although here we are using
lsblk to list all the available connected disk types and their respective rotational values:
# lsblk -d -o name,rota NAME ROTA sda 1 sdb 1 loop0 1 loop1 1
So all the identified disks have rotational value as 1 so this means they all are part of HDD.
Here I have another setup with SSD disks:
Method 3: Using disk model number
We can get the model number of the disk using
# lsblk -d -e 7 -o NAME,ROTA,DISC-MAX,MODEL NAME ROTA DISC-MAX MODEL nvme0n1 0 2T SAMSUNG MZQLB960HAJR-00007 nvme1n1 0 2T SAMSUNG MZQLB960HAJR-00007
If you are using any kind of RAID such as hardware or software raid then it is possible you won't get the model number with above command. In such case we have to rely on some third party tools. For example on my HPE Proliant Blades we are using hardware and software raid so on those servers I get following output:
# lsblk -d -e 7 -o NAME,ROTA,DISC-MAX,MODEL NAME ROTA DISC-MAX MODEL sda 1 0B LOGICAL VOLUME sdb 1 0B LOGICAL VOLUME
As you see instead of Model Number, I get "
LOGICAL VOLUME" so here I rely on HPE third party software such as
ssacli and HPE Array Configuration Utility (acu cli) to get the model number. First we need the physical drive location, which can be collected using:
# ssacli ctrl slot=0 pd all show status physicaldrive 1I:1:1 (port 1I:box 1:bay 1, 900 GB): OK physicaldrive 1I:1:2 (port 1I:box 1:bay 2, 900 GB): OK
Now that we have the Physical Drive location i.e. 1I:1:1, we can query the details for this PD:
# ssacli ctrl slot=0 pd 1I:1:1 show detail Smart Array P244br in Slot 0 (Embedded) Array A physicaldrive 1I:1:1 Port: 1I Box: 1 Bay: 1 Status: OK Drive Type: Data Drive Interface Type: SAS Size: 900 GB Drive exposed to OS: False Logical/Physical Block Size: 512/512 Rotational Speed: 10000 Firmware Revision: HPD6 Serial Number: 17E0A0DXFUWB1702 WWID: 50000397881B3406 Model: HP EG0900JETKB Current Temperature (C): 31 Maximum Temperature (C): 40 PHY Count: 2 PHY Transfer Rate: 12.0Gbps, Unknown Drive Authentication Status: OK Carrier Application Version: 11 Carrier Bootloader Version: 6 Sanitize Erase Supported: True Sanitize Estimated Max Erase Time: 4 hour(s), 14 minute(s) Unrestricted Sanitize Supported: False Shingled Magnetic Recording Support: None
As you see it gives us a bunch of information about the drive we are using along with the model number.
Now that we have the model number of both our disk, we can search for the specification guide of these disks. For example the above model number is for Smasung disk which as per their online specification guide is SSD
You can also use different commands to get the model number of the disks, such as
# dmesg | grep -i -e scsi -e ata
This can give you a long list of output but you can filter the model number from the output, sample below from my server:
[ 2.637090] hpsa 0000:07:00.0: scsi 0:0:0:0: added RAID HP P244br controller SSDSmartPathCap- En- Exp=1 [ 2.637106] hpsa 0000:07:00.0: scsi 0:0:1:0: masked Direct-Access HP EG0900JETKB PHYS DRV SSDSmartPathCap- En- Exp=0 [ 2.637115] hpsa 0000:07:00.0: scsi 0:0:2:0: masked Direct-Access HP EG0900JETKB PHYS DRV SSDSmartPathCap- En- Exp=0
Check disk interface types
Now that you are familiar with the type of disk you are using, you should know the type of disk interface you are using in your environment. The different types of available disk interface types are
- Advanced technology attachment (ATA)
- Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
- Serial ATA (SATA)
- Small Computer system interface (SCSI)
- Serial attached SCSI (SAS)
- Fibre Channel
Method 1: Using lspci
lspci is a utility for displaying information about PCI buses in the system and devices connected to them. We can grep for the specific interface type from the output of lspci
~]# /usr/sbin/lspci | grep IDE 00:01.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 IDE (rev 01) ~]# /usr/sbin/lspci | grep SATA 00:0d.0 SATA controller: Intel Corporation 82801HM/HEM (ICH8M/ICH8M-E) SATA Controller [AHCI mode] (rev 02) ~]# /usr/sbin/lspci | grep Fibre 04:00.2 Fibre Channel: Emulex Corporation OneConnect 10Gb FCoE Initiator (be3) (rev 01) 04:00.3 Fibre Channel: Emulex Corporation OneConnect 10Gb FCoE Initiator (be3) (rev 01)
Method 2: Using lshw
lshw is a small tool to extract detailed information on the hardware configuration of the machine. It can report exact memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, bus speed, etc. on DMI-capable x86 or IA-64 systems and on some PowerPC machines. It currently supports DMI (x86 and IA-64 only), OpenFirmware device tree (PowerPC only), PCI/AGP, CPUID (x86), IDE/ATA/ATAPI, PCMCIA (only tested on x86), SCSI and USB
Here is a sample output with SCSI disk interface
~]# lshw -c storage -c disk ... *-disk:0 description: SCSI Disk bus info: scsi@0:1.0.0 ... *-disk:1 description: SCSI Disk bus info: scsi@0:1.0.1 ...
Here is a sample output with SATA interface
... *-sata description: SATA controller product: 82801HM/HEM (ICH8M/ICH8M-E) SATA Controller [AHCI mode] vendor: Intel Corporation physical id: d bus info: pci@0000:00:0d.0 ...
Here is a sample output from NVME disks
... *-storage description: Non-Volatile memory controller product: Samsung Electronics Co Ltd vendor: Samsung Electronics Co Ltd physical id: 0 bus info: pci@0000:41:00.0 ...
Here is a sample output with ATA disk interface
... *-disk:0 description: ATA Disk bus info: scsi@2:0.0.0 logical name: /dev/sda ... *-disk:1 description: ATA Disk bus info: scsi@3:0.0.0 logical name: /dev/sdb
Why the bus info is SCSI when the disk interface type is ATA Disk?
If you observe the above output, we have ATA as the disk interface while the bus info is SCSI. The bud info is SCSI because that is the subsystem that provides IO for these disks.
It basically means that even though the disk interface is ATA, the drivers interact to the next kernel layer (the generic disk driver) using SCSI. This isn't actually true of all SATA drivers on all kernel versions with all kernel compile-time configurations, but it's common. Even PATA devices can appear as SCSI at that level (again, that depends on the kernel version and kernel compile-time configuration, as well as whether the ide-scsi module is used).
You can read more about this at Why do my SATA devices show up under /proc/scsi/scsi?
Method 3: Using hdparm
hdparm provides a command line interface to various kernel interfaces supported by the Linux SATA/PATA/SAS "libata" subsystem and the older IDE driver sub-system. Many newer (2008 and later) USB drive enclosures now also support "SAT" (SCSI-ATA Command Translation) and therefore may also work with hdparm.
We can use -I with hdparm which will request identification info directly from the drive, which is displayed in a new expanded format. Here are some example outputs:
# hdparm -I /dev/sda /dev/sda: ATA device, with non-removable media Standards: Likely used: 1 Configuration: Logical max current cylinders 0 0 heads 0 0 sectors/track 0 0 -- Logical/Physical Sector size: 512 bytes device size with M = 1024*1024: 0 MBytes device size with M = 1000*1000: 0 MBytes cache/buffer size = unknown ...
hdparm works exclusively with devices which speak the ATA protocol, for disks with other protocols, you may get the following error:
HDIO_DRIVE_CMD(identify) failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device
Method 4: Using lsblk
This can be one of the most reliable method to get the disk interface type.
lsblk lists information about all available or the specified block devices. Using -o with lsblk we can print additional columns. To get the disk interface type we can use "TRAN" which will print the device transport type.
For example on a server using Fibre Channel:
~]# lsblk -do name,tran | egrep -v loop NAME TRAN sda fc sdb fc sdc fc sdd fc sde fc sdf fc sdg fc sdh fc
On a server using HDD, here both the disks are using SAS protocol.
~]# lsblk -do name,tran | egrep -v loop NAME TRAN sda sas sdb sas
On Virtual Box environment, the virtual disks are using SATA while the DVD is using ATA protocol:
~]# lsblk -do name,tran | egrep -v loop NAME TRAN sda sata sdb sata sr0 ata sr1 ata
In this tutorial we explored different commands and methods which can be used to check the disk type and the disk interface type used to detect the disks in the server. But before you use these commands, you should be familiar with all the different disk and interfaces available.
Related Posts: how to check my hard disk is ssd or hdd. how to check if you have a solid state drive. what kind of hard drive do I have. how to check ssd. how to check disk type hdd or ssd. how to check disk interface type in Linux.