Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

In this tutorial we will install Kubernetes cluster using calico plugin. If you are interested there is a long list of Container Network Interface (CNI) available to configure network interfaces in Linux containers.

 

Overview on Calico CNI

The project Calico attempts to solve the speed and efficiency problems that using virtual LANs, bridging, and tunneling can cause. It achieves this by connecting your containers to a vRouter, which then routes traffic directly over the L3 network. This can give huge advantages when you are sending data between multiple data centers as there is no reliance on NAT and the smaller packet sizes reduce CPU utilization.

Advertisement

The Calico architecture contains four important components in order to provide a better networking solution:

  • Felix, the Calico worker process, is the heart of Calico networking, which primarily routes and provides desired connectivity to and from the workloads on host. It also provides the interface to kernels for outgoing endpoint traffic.
  • BIRD, the route distribution open source BGP, exchanges routing information between hosts. The kernel endpoints, which are picked up by BIRD, are distributed to BGP peers in order to provide inter-host routing. Two BIRD processes run in the calico-node container, IPv4 (bird) and one for IPv6 (bird6).
  • Confd, a templating process to auto-generate configuration for BIRD, monitors the etcd store for any changes to BGP configuration such as log levels and IPAM information. Confd also dynamically generates BIRD configuration files based on data from etcd and triggers automatically as updates are applied to data. Confd triggers BIRD to load new files whenever a configuration file is changed.
  • calicoctl, the command line used to configure and start the Calico service, even allows the datastore (etcd) to define and apply security policy.

 

Bring up Kubernetes Cluster

Lab Environment

I am using Oracle VirtualBox to create multiple Virtual machines with Linux OS. I will use these individual VMs to create my Kubernetes Cluster using kubeadm and Calico CNI. These VMs are installed with CentOS 8 and using Bridged Networking.

Following are the specs of each VM:

Resourcescontrollerworker-1worker-2
OSCentOS 8CentOS 8CentOS 8
hostnamecontrollerworker-1worker-2
FQDNcontroller.example.comworker-1.example.comworker-2.example.com
Storage20GB20GB20GB
vCPU222
RAM6GB6GB6GB
Adapter-1 (Bridged)192.168.0.150192.168.0.151192.168.0.152

 

The following sections are already covered in detail so you can follow the respective hyperlink which all link to the same article and different sections:
Pre-requisites
Installing container runtime
Install Kubernetes components (kubelet, kubectl and kubeadm)
Initialize control node

At the end of this section your controller node should be initialized

[root@controller ~]# kubectl cluster-info
Kubernetes control plane is running at https://192.168.0.150:6443
KubeDNS is running at https://192.168.0.150:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns:dns/proxy

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.

Following are the list of pods available at this stage:

Advertisement

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

 

The output of kubectl get nodes should be something like following:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME                     STATUS     ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
controller.example.com   NotReady   control-plane,master   77s   v1.20.5

The controller node would be in NotReady state so next we must install our Container Network Interface plugin.

 

Install Calico network on Kubernetes

In this section we will install the Calico CNI on our Kubernetes cluster nodes:

 

Configure Firewall

In addition to the ports which you may have already added to your firewall following the pre-requisite link earlier, you would also need to enable port 179 for Calico networking (BGP) on all the cluster nodes.

You can check Networking Requirements from the official page to get any more list of ports which needs to be enabled based on your environment.

 ~]# firewall-cmd --add-port=179/tcp --permanent
success

 ~]# firewall-cmd --reload
success

 

Download Calico CNI plugin

We will download the Calico networking manifest and use it to install the plugin for the Kubernetes API datastore.

[root@controller ~]# curl https://docs.projectcalico.org/manifests/calico.yaml -O

Command output from my controller:
Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

This will download calico.yaml file in your current working directory

Advertisement
[root@controller ~]# ls -l calico.yaml
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 189190 Mar 24 00:19 calico.yaml

 

Modify pod CIDR (Optional)

Next you must assign a pod CIDR subnet. CIDR stands for Classless Inter-Domain Routing, also known as supernetting. By default Calico assumes that you wish to assign 192.168.0.0/16 subnet for the pod network but if you wish to choose any other subnet then you can add the same in calico.yaml file.

I am already using 192.168.0.0/24 for my Kubernetes Cluster and I don’t want to use the same range for my Pods. So I will assign a random subnet 10.142.0.0/24 as my CIDR for pods.

We will open the calico.yaml using vim editor and modify CALICO_IPV4POOL_CIDR variable in the manifest and set it to 10.142.0.0/24 as shown below:

            - name: CALICO_IPV4POOL_CIDR
              value: "10.142.0.0/24"

 

Install Calico Plugin

Next we can go ahead and install the Calico network using kubectl command with calico manifest file:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl apply -f calico.yaml
configmap/calico-config unchanged
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/bgpconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/bgppeers.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/blockaffinities.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/clusterinformations.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/felixconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/globalnetworkpolicies.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/globalnetworksets.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/hostendpoints.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamblocks.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamconfigs.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ipamhandles.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/ippools.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/kubecontrollersconfigurations.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/networkpolicies.crd.projectcalico.org configured
customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/networksets.crd.projectcalico.org configured
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-kube-controllers unchanged
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-kube-controllers unchanged
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-node unchanged
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/calico-node unchanged
daemonset.apps/calico-node created
serviceaccount/calico-node created
deployment.apps/calico-kube-controllers created
serviceaccount/calico-kube-controllers created
poddisruptionbudget.policy/calico-kube-controllers created

Check the status of the newly created pods under kube-system namespace:

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

 

So we have new calico pods coming up and they are still at init-container stage.

Check the status of the pods again in some time and now the calico pods should be in Running state and the containers should be in READY state. For any issues follow the troubleshooting section on projectcalico.org

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

 

Install calicoctl

The calicoctl tool also provides the simple interface for general management of Calico configuration irrespective of whether Calico is running on VMs, containers, or bare metal.. Although the usage of this tool is out of the scope of this tutorial.

Advertisement

You can follow the official guide to install calicoctl tool on your controller node.

 

Join worker nodes

Now we can join our worker nodes. I hope you have saved the kubeadm join command from the kubeadm init stage which we executed earlier.

Since we had stored the kubeadm join command, I will execute the same on my worker nodes to join the Kubernetes cluster:

 

On worker-1.example.com

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

 

On worker-2.example.com

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

 

The above command will only start the kubelet service so we must manually enable it to auto-start after every reboot on all the worker nodes:

[root@worker-1 ~]# systemctl enable kubelet
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/kubelet.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service.

[root@worker-2 ~]# systemctl enable kubelet
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/kubelet.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service.

Now check the status of kubernetes cluster on the controller node:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME                     STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
controller.example.com   Ready    control-plane,master   9h    v1.20.5
worker-1.example.com     Ready    <none>                 9h    v1.20.5
worker-2.example.com     Ready    <none>                 9h    v1.20.5

The status of controller node and all other worker nodes are Ready so all seems good.

Additionally if you check the list of pods under kube-system, you will realize that we have new calico-node and kube-proxy pods for each worker nodes:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
calico-kube-controllers-69496d8b75-nbdpq         1/1     Running   0          11m
calico-node-2ppgj                                1/1     Running   0          4m8s
calico-node-hhz9s                                1/1     Running   0          4m26s
calico-node-q9t7r                                1/1     Running   0          11m
coredns-74ff55c5b-mr4zv                          1/1     Running   0          17m
coredns-74ff55c5b-zvsqz                          1/1     Running   0          17m
etcd-controller.example.com                      1/1     Running   0          17m
kube-apiserver-controller.example.com            1/1     Running   0          17m
kube-controller-manager-controller.example.com   1/1     Running   0          17m
kube-proxy-mcqxb                                 1/1     Running   0          17m
kube-proxy-nkqh9                                 1/1     Running   0          4m8s
kube-proxy-rs4ct                                 1/1     Running   0          4m26s
kube-scheduler-controller.example.com            1/1     Running   0          17m

 

Create a Pod (Verify Calico network)

Now let’s try to create a Pod to make sure it is getting the IP Address from our POD CIDR which we assigned to the Calico manifest. Here I have a YAML file for a simple nginx pod:

Easy steps to install Calico CNI on Kubernetes Cluster

Let’s create this pod:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl create -f nginx.yaml
pod/nginx created

Check the IP assigned to this Pod via Calico network:

[root@controller ~]# kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP           NODE                   NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx   1/1     Running   0          25s   10.142.0.1   worker-2.example.com   <none>           <none>

So the Pod has got the IP from our subnet 10.142.0.0/24 which we assigned while installing the Calico network in our Kubernetes Cluster.

 

Summary

Calico provides a scalable networking solution for connecting containers, VMs, or bare metal. Calico provides connectivity using the scalable IP networking principle as a layer 3 approach. Calico can be deployed without overlays or encapsulation. It also handles all the necessary IP routing, security policy rules, and distribution of routes across a cluster of nodes. We can further use calicoctl to configure the networking and policies to be used by the Pod containers.

 

Related Searches: kubectl calico, calico kubernetes, kubernetes install calico, calico k8s, kubernetes install calico plugin, what is calico in kubernetes, calico kubernetes compatibility, installing calico on kubernetes, kubernetes networking calico, kubernetes cni calico, calicot manifestation, calico running

Didn't find what you were looking for? Perform a quick search across GoLinuxCloud

If my articles on GoLinuxCloud has helped you, kindly consider buying me a coffee as a token of appreciation.

Buy GoLinuxCloud a Coffee

For any other feedbacks or questions you can either use the comments section or contact me form.

Thank You for your support!!

Leave a Comment